strftime

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

strftime — 로케일 설정에 따라 현지 시간/날짜 형식 지정

경고 이 함수는 PHP 8.1.0부터 더 이상 사용되지 않습니다. 이 함수에 의존하는 것은 매우 권장되지 않습니다.


설명

strftime(string $format, ?int $timestamp = null): string|false

로케일 설정에 따라 시간 및/또는 날짜 형식을 지정합니다. 월 및 요일 이름 및 기타 언어 종속 문자열은 setlocale()로 설정된 현재 로케일을 따릅니다.

모든 변환 지정자가 C 라이브러리에서 지원되는 것은 아니며, 이 경우 PHP의 strftime()에서 지원되지 않습니다. 또한 모든 플랫폼이 음수 타임스탬프를 지원하는 것은 아니므로 날짜 범위가 Unix 시대 이전으로 제한될 수 있습니다. 이는 %e, %T, %R 및, %D(및 기타 가능)와 Jan 1, 1970 이전 날짜가 Windows, 일부 Linux 배포판 및 기타 몇 가지 운영 체제에서 작동하지 않음을 의미합니다. Windows 시스템의 경우 지원되는 변환 지정자의 전체 개요는 » MSDN에서 찾을 수 있습니다.


매개변수

format

format 매개변수 문자열에서 다음 문자가 인식됩니다.

format 설명 반환된 값의 예
Day --- ---
%a An abbreviated textual representation of the day Sun through Sat
%A A full textual representation of the day Sunday through Saturday
%d Two-digit day of the month (with leading zeros) 01 to 31
%e Day of the month, with a space preceding single digits. Not implemented as described on Windows. See below for more information. 1 to 31
%j Day of the year, 3 digits with leading zeros 001 to 366
%u ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week 1 (for Monday) through 7 (for Sunday)
%w Numeric representation of the day of the week 0 (for Sunday) through 6 (for Saturday)
Week --- ---
%U Week number of the given year, starting with the first Sunday as the first week 13 (for the 13th full week of the year)
%V ISO-8601:1988 week number of the given year, starting with the first week of the year with at least 4 weekdays, with Monday being the start of the week 01 through 53 (where 53 accounts for an overlapping week)
%W A numeric representation of the week of the year, starting with the first Monday as the first week 46 (for the 46th week of the year beginning with a Monday)
Month --- ---
%b Abbreviated month name, based on the locale Jan through Dec
%B Full month name, based on the locale January through December
%h Abbreviated month name, based on the locale (an alias of %b) Jan through Dec
%m Two digit representation of the month 01 (for January) through 12 (for December)
Year --- ---
%C Two digit representation of the century (year divided by 100, truncated to an integer) 19 for the 20th Century
%g Two digit representation of the year going by ISO-8601:1988 standards (see %V) Example: 09 for the week of January 6, 2009
%G The full four-digit version of %g Example: 2008 for the week of January 3, 2009
%y Two digit representation of the year Example: 09 for 2009, 79 for 1979
%Y Four digit representation for the year Example: 2038
Time --- ---
%H Two digit representation of the hour in 24-hour format 00 through 23
%k Hour in 24-hour format, with a space preceding single digits 0 through 23
%I Two digit representation of the hour in 12-hour format 01 through 12
%l (lower-case 'L') Hour in 12-hour format, with a space preceding single digits 1 through 12
%M Two digit representation of the minute 00 through 59
%p UPPER-CASE 'AM' or 'PM' based on the given time Example: AM for 00:31, PM for 22:23
%P lower-case 'am' or 'pm' based on the given time Example: am for 00:31, pm for 22:23
%r Same as "%I:%M:%S %p" Example: 09:34:17 PM for 21:34:17
%R Same as "%H:%M" Example: 00:35 for 12:35 AM, 16:44 for 4:44 PM
%S Two digit representation of the second 00 through 59
%T Same as "%H:%M:%S" Example: 21:34:17 for 09:34:17 PM
%X Preferred time representation based on locale, without the date Example: 03:59:16 or 15:59:16
%z The time zone offset. Not implemented as described on Windows. See below for more information. Example: -0500 for US Eastern Time
%Z The time zone abbreviation. Not implemented as described on Windows. See below for more information. Example: EST for Eastern Time
Time and Date Stamps --- ---
%c Preferred date and time stamp based on locale Example: Tue Feb 5 00:45:10 2009 for February 5, 2009 at 12:45:10 AM
%D Same as "%m/%d/%y" Example: 02/05/09 for February 5, 2009
%F Same as "%Y-%m-%d" (commonly used in database datestamps) Example: 2009-02-05 for February 5, 2009
%s Unix Epoch Time timestamp (same as the time() function) Example: 305815200 for September 10, 1979 08:40:00 AM
%x Preferred date representation based on locale, without the time Example: 02/05/09 for February 5, 2009
Miscellaneous --- ---
%n A newline character ("\n") ---
%t A Tab character ("\t") ---
%% A literal percentage character ("%") ---

경고 ISO-9899:1999와 달리 Sun Solaris는 일요일을 1로 시작합니다. 결과적으로 %u는 이 설명서에 설명된 대로 작동하지 않을 수 있습니다.

경고 Windows 전용:

%e 수정자는 이 함수의 Windows 구현에서 지원되지 않습니다. 이 값을 얻으려면 %#d 수정자를 대신 사용할 수 있습니다. 아래 예는 크로스 플랫폼 호환 함수를 작성하는 방법을 보여줍니다.

%z%Z 수정자는 모두 오프셋이나 약어 대신 표준 시간대 이름을 반환합니다.

경고 macOS 및 musl만 해당: %P 수정자는 이 함수의 macOS 구현에서 지원되지 않습니다.

timestamp
선택적 timestamp 매개변수는 timestamp가 생략되거나 null인 경우 현재 현지 시간으로 기본 설정되는 int Unix 타임스탬프입니다. 즉, 기본값은 time() 값입니다.

반환 값

주어진 timestamp를 사용하여 format에 따라 형식이 지정된 문자열을 반환하거나 타임스탬프가 제공되지 않은 경우 현재 현지 시간을 반환합니다. 월 및 요일 이름 및 기타 언어 종속 문자열은 setlocale()로 설정된 현재 로케일을 따릅니다. format이 비어 있거나 지원되지 않는 변환 지정자가 포함되어 있거나 반환된 문자열의 길이가 4095보다 클 경우 함수는 false를 반환합니다.


오류/예외

날짜/시간 함수에 대한 모든 호출은 시간대가 유효하지 않은 경우 E_WARNING을 생성합니다. date_default_timezone_set()도 참조하십시오.

출력은 기본 C 라이브러리에 따라 달라지므로 일부 변환 지정자는 지원되지 않습니다. Windows에서 알 수 없는 변환 지정자를 제공하면 5개의 E_WARNING 메시지가 발생하고 false를 반환합니다. 다른 운영 체제에서는 E_WARNING 메시지가 표시되지 않을 수 있으며 출력에 변환되지 않은 변환 지정자가 포함될 수 있습니다.


변경 로그

버전 설명
8.0.0 timestamp는 이제 nullable입니다.

Examples

이 예는 시스템에 해당 로케일이 설치되어 있는 경우에 작동합니다.

예제 #1 strftime() 로케일 예

                  
<?php
setlocale(LC_TIME, "C");
echo strftime("%A");
setlocale(LC_TIME, "fi_FI");
echo strftime(" in Finnish is %A,");
setlocale(LC_TIME, "fr_FR");
echo strftime(" in French %A and");
setlocale(LC_TIME, "de_DE");
echo strftime(" in German %A.\n");
?>
                  
                

예제 #2 ISO 8601:1988 주 번호 예

                  
<?php
/*     December 2002 / January 2003
ISOWk  M   Tu  W   Thu F   Sa  Su
----- ----------------------------
51     16  17  18  19  20  21  22
52     23  24  25  26  27  28  29
1      30  31   1   2   3   4   5
2       6   7   8   9  10  11  12
3      13  14  15  16  17  18  19   */

// Outputs: 12/28/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = 52,2002,2002
echo "12/28/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y", strtotime("12/28/2002")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 12/30/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = 1,2003,2002
echo "12/30/2002 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y", strtotime("12/30/2002")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/3/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = 1,2003,2003
echo "1/3/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/3/2003")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/10/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = 2,2003,2003
echo "1/10/2003 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/10/2003")) . "\n";



/*     December 2004 / January 2005
ISOWk  M   Tu  W   Thu F   Sa  Su
----- ----------------------------
51     13  14  15  16  17  18  19
52     20  21  22  23  24  25  26
53     27  28  29  30  31   1   2
1       3   4   5   6   7   8   9
2      10  11  12  13  14  15  16   */

// Outputs: 12/23/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = 52,2004,2004
echo "12/23/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("12/23/2004")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 12/31/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = 53,2004,2004
echo "12/31/2004 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("12/31/2004")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/2/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = 53,2004,2005
echo "1/2/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/2/2005")) . "\n";

// Outputs: 1/3/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = 1,2005,2005
echo "1/3/2005 - %V,%G,%Y = " . strftime("%V,%G,%Y",strtotime("1/3/2005")) . "\n";

?>
                  
                

예제 #3 %e 수정자를 사용하는 플랫폼 간 호환 예

                  
<?php

// Jan 1: results in: '%e%1%' (%%, e, %%, %e, %%)
$format = '%%e%%%e%%';

// Check for Windows to find and replace the %e
// modifier correctly
if (strtoupper(substr(PHP_OS, 0, 3)) == 'WIN') {
    $format = preg_replace('#(?<!%)((?:%%)*)%e#', '\1%#d', $format);
}

echo strftime($format);
?>
                  
                

예제 #4 알려진 형식과 알려지지 않은 형식을 모두 표시합니다.

                  
<?php
// Describe the formats.
$strftimeFormats = array(
    'A' => 'A full textual representation of the day',
    'B' => 'Full month name, based on the locale',
    'C' => 'Two digit representation of the century (year divided by 100, truncated to an integer)',
    'D' => 'Same as "%m/%d/%y"',
    'E' => '',
    'F' => 'Same as "%Y-%m-%d"',
    'G' => 'The full four-digit version of %g',
    'H' => 'Two digit representation of the hour in 24-hour format',
    'I' => 'Two digit representation of the hour in 12-hour format',
    'J' => '',
    'K' => '',
    'L' => '',
    'M' => 'Two digit representation of the minute',
    'N' => '',
    'O' => '',
    'P' => 'lower-case "am" or "pm" based on the given time',
    'Q' => '',
    'R' => 'Same as "%H:%M"',
    'S' => 'Two digit representation of the second',
    'T' => 'Same as "%H:%M:%S"',
    'U' => 'Week number of the given year, starting with the first Sunday as the first week',
    'V' => 'ISO-8601:1988 week number of the given year, starting with the first week of the year with at least 4 weekdays, with Monday being the start of the week',
    'W' => 'A numeric representation of the week of the year, starting with the first Monday as the first week',
    'X' => 'Preferred time representation based on locale, without the date',
    'Y' => 'Four digit representation for the year',
    'Z' => 'The time zone offset/abbreviation option NOT given by %z (depends on operating system)',
    'a' => 'An abbreviated textual representation of the day',
    'b' => 'Abbreviated month name, based on the locale',
    'c' => 'Preferred date and time stamp based on local',
    'd' => 'Two-digit day of the month (with leading zeros)',
    'e' => 'Day of the month, with a space preceding single digits',
    'f' => '',
    'g' => 'Two digit representation of the year going by ISO-8601:1988 standards (see %V)',
    'h' => 'Abbreviated month name, based on the locale (an alias of %b)',
    'i' => '',
    'j' => 'Day of the year, 3 digits with leading zeros',
    'k' => 'Hour in 24-hour format, with a space preceding single digits',
    'l' => 'Hour in 12-hour format, with a space preceding single digits',
    'm' => 'Two digit representation of the month',
    'n' => 'A newline character ("\n")',
    'o' => '',
    'p' => 'UPPER-CASE "AM" or "PM" based on the given time',
    'q' => '',
    'r' => 'Same as "%I:%M:%S %p"',
    's' => 'Unix Epoch Time timestamp',
    't' => 'A Tab character ("\t")',
    'u' => 'ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week',
    'v' => '',
    'w' => 'Numeric representation of the day of the week',
    'x' => 'Preferred date representation based on locale, without the time',
    'y' => 'Two digit representation of the year',
    'z' => 'Either the time zone offset from UTC or the abbreviation (depends on operating system)',
    '%' => 'A literal percentage character ("%")',
);

// Results.
$strftimeValues = array();

// Evaluate the formats whilst suppressing any errors.
foreach($strftimeFormats as $format => $description){
    if (False !== ($value = @strftime("%{$format}"))){
        $strftimeValues[$format] = $value;
    }
}

// Find the longest value.
$maxValueLength = 2 + max(array_map('strlen', $strftimeValues));

// Report known formats.
foreach($strftimeValues as $format => $value){
    echo "Known format   : '{$format}' = ", str_pad("'{$value}'", $maxValueLength), " ( {$strftimeFormats[$format]} )\n";
}

// Report unknown formats.
foreach(array_diff_key($strftimeFormats, $strftimeValues) as $format => $description){
    echo "Unknown format : '{$format}'   ", str_pad(' ', $maxValueLength), ($description ? " ( {$description} )" : ''), "\n";
}
?>
                  
                

위의 예는 다음과 유사한 결과를 출력합니다.

Known format   : 'A' = 'Friday'            ( A full textual representation of the day )
Known format   : 'B' = 'December'          ( Full month name, based on the locale )
Known format   : 'H' = '11'                ( Two digit representation of the hour in 24-hour format )
Known format   : 'I' = '11'                ( Two digit representation of the hour in 12-hour format )
Known format   : 'M' = '24'                ( Two digit representation of the minute )
Known format   : 'S' = '44'                ( Two digit representation of the second )
Known format   : 'U' = '48'                ( Week number of the given year, starting with the first Sunday as the first week )
Known format   : 'W' = '48'                ( A numeric representation of the week of the year, starting with the first Monday as the first week )
Known format   : 'X' = '11:24:44'          ( Preferred time representation based on locale, without the date )
Known format   : 'Y' = '2010'              ( Four digit representation for the year )
Known format   : 'Z' = 'GMT Standard Time' ( The time zone offset/abbreviation option NOT given by %z (depends on operating system) )
Known format   : 'a' = 'Fri'               ( An abbreviated textual representation of the day )
Known format   : 'b' = 'Dec'               ( Abbreviated month name, based on the locale )
Known format   : 'c' = '12/03/10 11:24:44' ( Preferred date and time stamp based on local )
Known format   : 'd' = '03'                ( Two-digit day of the month (with leading zeros) )
Known format   : 'j' = '337'               ( Day of the year, 3 digits with leading zeros )
Known format   : 'm' = '12'                ( Two digit representation of the month )
Known format   : 'p' = 'AM'                ( UPPER-CASE "AM" or "PM" based on the given time )
Known format   : 'w' = '5'                 ( Numeric representation of the day of the week )
Known format   : 'x' = '12/03/10'          ( Preferred date representation based on locale, without the time )
Known format   : 'y' = '10'                ( Two digit representation of the year )
Known format   : 'z' = 'GMT Standard Time' ( Either the time zone offset from UTC or the abbreviation (depends on operating system) )
Known format   : '%' = '%'                 ( A literal percentage character ("%") )
Unknown format : 'C'                       ( Two digit representation of the century (year divided by 100, truncated to an integer) )
Unknown format : 'D'                       ( Same as "%m/%d/%y" )
Unknown format : 'E'
Unknown format : 'F'                       ( Same as "%Y-%m-%d" )
Unknown format : 'G'                       ( The full four-digit version of %g )
Unknown format : 'J'
Unknown format : 'K'
Unknown format : 'L'
Unknown format : 'N'
Unknown format : 'O'
Unknown format : 'P'                       ( lower-case "am" or "pm" based on the given time )
Unknown format : 'Q'
Unknown format : 'R'                       ( Same as "%H:%M" )
Unknown format : 'T'                       ( Same as "%H:%M:%S" )
Unknown format : 'V'                       ( ISO-8601:1988 week number of the given year, starting with the first week of the year with at least 4 weekdays, with Monday being the start of the week )
Unknown format : 'e'                       ( Day of the month, with a space preceding single digits )
Unknown format : 'f'
Unknown format : 'g'                       ( Two digit representation of the year going by ISO-8601:1988 standards (see %V) )
Unknown format : 'h'                       ( Abbreviated month name, based on the locale (an alias of %b) )
Unknown format : 'i'
Unknown format : 'k'                       ( Hour in 24-hour format, with a space preceding single digits )
Unknown format : 'l'                       ( Hour in 12-hour format, with a space preceding single digits )
Unknown format : 'n'                       ( A newline character ("\n") )
Unknown format : 'o'
Unknown format : 'q'
Unknown format : 'r'                       ( Same as "%I:%M:%S %p" )
Unknown format : 's'                       ( Unix Epoch Time timestamp )
Unknown format : 't'                       ( A Tab character ("\t") )
Unknown format : 'u'                       ( ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week )
Unknown format : 'v'
                

메모

메모: ISO 8601:1988 주 번호를 기반으로 하는 %G 및 %V는 번호 매기기 시스템을 완전히 이해하지 못하면 예기치 않은(정확하더라도) 결과를 줄 수 있습니다. 이 매뉴얼 페이지에서 %V 예제를 참조하십시오.


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